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All you need to know about Down syndrome in children

Down syndrome is a condition in which a child is born with an extra copy of his twenty-first chromosome, and this causes a delay in physical and mental development, and here the child needs rehabilitation and training with specialists, it is possible that the child is talented in sports and the arts, and within the series Q and C, the seventh day presents everything you want to know About Down syndrome, according to healthline.

Q: What causes Down syndrome?


In all childbearing cases, both parents pass their genes on to their children. These genes are carried in chromosomes, and when a child's cells develop, each cell is supposed to receive 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, half of the chromosomes from the mother and the other half from the father.

In children with Down syndrome, one of the chromosomes does not separate properly, and the child ends up with three copies, or an extra partial copy, of chromosome 21, instead of two. This extra chromosome causes problems with brain development and physical traits.

Q: What are the types of Down syndrome?

There are three types of Down syndrome:


Trisomy 21

Trisomy 21 means there is an extra copy of chromosome 21 in each cell. This is the most common form of Down syndrome.


Mosaic occurs when a child is born with an extra chromosome in some but not all of their cells. People with mosaic Down syndrome tend to have fewer symptoms than those with trisomy 21.


In this type of Down syndrome, children only have an extra part of chromosome 21. There are 46 chromosomes total. However, one of them has an extra piece of chromosome 21 attached.

Q: Will my child have Down syndrome?

Some parents have a higher chance of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome. According to the Centers for Disease and Prevention, mothers age 35 and older are more likely to have children with Down syndrome than younger mothers.

People with a family history of Down syndrome, and people who carry a genetic transfer.

Q: What are the symptoms of Down syndrome?

At birth, babies with Down syndrome usually have some characteristic signs, including:

Flat facial features.

Small head and ears.

Short neck.

Tongue swelling.

Eyes that tilt upward.

Atypical ears.

Muscle weakness.

An infant with Down syndrome can be born medium-sized, but develops more slowly than a child without the condition.

Q: What are the complications of Down syndrome?

Congenital heart defects.

-hearing loss.

Poor vision.

Cataracts (cloudy eyes).

Hip problems, such as dislocations.

-blood cancer.

Chronic constipation.

Sleep apnea (sleep apnea).

Dementia (problems with thinking and memory).

Hypothyroidism (decreased thyroid function).


Delayed tooth development, causing problems with chewing.

Alzheimer's disease later in life.